IS428 2013-14 Term1 Assign2 Shih Fu Hua

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Overview

In this digital economy age, massive and complex data have been captured and stored in organization databases and/or data warehouses. By and large, these data contain a large amount of variables of a particular product or activity.

Due to limitations in perceptual and screen space, data visualization techniques available in traditional business intelligence systems tend to confine to univariate and bivariate data such as bar chart, pie, chart, histogram, and scatter plot. As a result, many important relationships that live in these data remain undiscovered.

1. Design a data visualization system for analyzing and visualizing high-dimensional attributes from a dataset of your choice.

2. Apply the interactive visualization techniques you have learned by using commercial-of-the-shelf software.

3. Gain hands-on experiences on using the visualization tool and at the same time, to evaluate the pros and cons of the tool in real world applications.

Theme of Interest

The main focus of my data analysis is on discovering possible connections between the government financial state and the causes of deteriorating environment.

- 27 September 2013

  • The main focus of my data analysis is on discovering possible connections between the failing of governments and the deteriorating of environment.

Question for Investigation

I wish to investigate more into the theme of interest with the following questions in mind:

1. Does the government still have any more resource to save the environment?
2. Is there any interesting trend comparing the interest of government and private corporation?
3. Has there been a trend in the reduction of energy consumption at all? - 29 September 2013
  • Will the reduction of energy consumption be possible in the near future? - 27 September 2013
  • Have there been enough effort made in the reduction of energy consumption?

Data Preparation

Data Collection

I have explored the following two sites for data selection:

Sfhdatacollection.png Sfhdatacollection2.png


Iteration 1

  • Energy production (kt of oil equivalent)

Energy production refers to forms of primary energy--petroleum (crude oil, natural gas liquids, and oil from nonconventional sources), natural gas, solid fuels (coal, lignite, and other derived fuels), and combustible renewables and waste--and primary electricity, all converted into oil equivalents.

  • Central government debt, total (% of GDP)

Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year.

  • Energy imports, net (% of energy use)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

  • Investment in energy with private participation (current US$)

Investment in energy projects with private participation covers infrastructure projects in energy (electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution) that have reached financial closure and directly or indirectly serve the public. Movable assets and small projects such as windmills are excluded. The types of projects included are operations and management contracts, operations and management contracts with major capital expenditure, greenfield projects (in which a private entity or a public-private joint venture builds and operates a new facility), and divestitures. Investment commitments are the sum of investments in facilities and investments in government assets. Investments in facilities are the resources the project company commits to invest during the contract period either in new facilities or in expansion and modernization of existing facilities. Investments in government assets are the resources the project company spends on acquiring government assets such as state-owned enterprises, rights to provide services in a specific area, or the use of specific radio spectrums. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

  • Energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita)

Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

  • Renewable internal freshwater resources, total (billion cubic meters)

Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country.

  • Expense (% of GDP)

Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends.

  • CO2 emissions (kt)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

  • Combustible renewables and waste (% of total energy)

Combustible renewables and waste comprise solid biomass, liquid biomass, biogas, industrial waste, and municipal waste, measured as a percentage of total energy use.

  • Alternative and nuclear energy (% of total energy use)

Clean energy is noncarbohydrate energy that does not produce carbon dioxide when generated. It includes hydropower and nuclear, geothermal, and solar power, among others.


Iteration 2

  • Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)

Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

  • CO2 intensity (kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use)

Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.

  • Electricity production from oil, gas and coal sources (% of total)

Sources of electricity refer to the inputs used to generate electricity. Oil refers to crude oil and petroleum products. Gas refers to natural gas but excludes natural gas liquids. Coal refers to all coal and brown coal, both primary (including hard coal and lignite-brown coal) and derived fuels (including patent fuel, coke oven coke, gas coke, coke oven gas, and blast furnace gas). Peat is also included in this category.

  • GDP (current US$)

GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.

  • GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2005 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.

  • General government final consumption expenditure (% of GDP)

General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation.

  • Gross national expenditure (current US$)

Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

Matching Checks

Data sets used in bold:

1. Does the government still have any more resource to save the environment?

  • Central government debt, total (% of GDP)
  • Expense (% of GDP)
  • Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  • GDP (current US$)
  • GDP growth (annual %)
  • General government final consumption expenditure (% of GDP)
  • Gross national expenditure (current US$)

2. Is there any interesting trend comparing the interest of government and private corporation?

  • Investment in energy with private participation (current US$)

3. Will the reduction of energy consumption be possible in the near future?

  • Energy production (kt of oil equivalent)
  • Energy imports, net (% of energy use)
  • Energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita)
  • Renewable internal freshwater resources, total (billion cubic meters)
  • CO2 emissions (kt)
  • Combustible renewables and waste (% of total energy)
  • Alternative and nuclear energy (% of total energy use)
  • Electricity production from oil, gas and coal sources (% of total)

Data Transformation

Lack of History Data

SFHdatatransform1.png SFHdatatransform3.png

Empty Rows

SFHdatatransform2.png SFHdatatransform6.png

Collection of Data Every 5 Years Only

SFHdatatransform5.png

Final Data Selection

SFHdatatransform4.png

Across all the data sets that I have collected, I encountered the problems mentioned above.

I decided to remove the empty rows and narrow down my data sets to the most recent 10 years as majority of the countries only started to provide the data in the recent years. Data that is dated back in the 1970s would most likely to be out of context even if all the data fields are not empty, and would be removed as well.

Constructing Visualisation

Exploring Visualisation

SFHA2-20.png

Tree map

Unable to compare performance with other country

SFHA2-21.png

Packed bubbles

Nice looking but merely useless in this case

SFHA2-22.png

Lines

AWESOME

SFHA2-23.png

Area Charts

The area gives a false impression on comparative country performance

SFHA2-24.png

Polygon

Overlapping of the polygons forbids accurate analysis

SFHA2-25.png

Shape

Plotting the trend across the year, line graph relatively has a better effect

SFHA2-26.png

Side-by-side bars

Requires the readers to recognize the change of country

SFHA2-27.png

Line

Displaying side-by-by restricts the number of comparison of countries

SFHA2-31.PNG

Bar, animation by years

Requires readers to remember the trend of performance on investigating countries

SFHA2-33.png

Map, bubble colour spectrum by data range

Allows comparisons across countries but difficult to related other factors

SFHA2-34.png

Filled map, colour spectrum by data range

Magnified the visual presentation comapared to map with bubble indicators. However, they still share the same problem

SFHA2-32.PNG

Map, animation by years, bubble size by data range

At the first glance, it is amazing that a map can be plotted by double clicking.

Although it gives the best visual representation for readers to recognize the geographical location of a country, it is not useful in helping the readers recognize the pattern on a time horizon

SFHA2-35.png

Automatic, points located by years

Confusing for readers. Not helpful in recognizing a trend

SFHA2-37.png

Bar, animation by years, colour spectrum by data range and labeled

Readers will most likely lose focus as it is very ugly with an added label and changing pages

SFHA2-36.png

Vertical bar with data range on the y-axis, filter by single year and country name

A better view of performance across countries. However it requires readers to remember the trend on time horizon

Finally

MY DATA VISUALISATION

Has there been a trend in the reduction of energy consumption at all?

SFHA2-28.png

What is the interest of private corporation?

SFHA2-29.png

Does the government still have any more resource to save the environment?

SFHA2-30.png

Analysis

1. Does the government still have any more resource to save the environment? 2. Is there any interesting trend comparing the interest of government and private corporation? 3. Has there been a trend in the reduction of energy consumption at all?
SFHA2-40.png SFHA2-39.png SFHA2-38.png
SFHA2-43.png SFHA2-42.png SFHA2-41.png


After building my interactive data visualisation, I am able select the countries I wish to investigate. The interactive data visualisation also allows readers to highlight a particular country of interested in all the variables.

For example, in the first row, the trend lines for China is highlighted.

Answering the questions:

1. Does the government still have any more resource to save the environment?

YES, if all other variables affecting budget decisions remain constant across all countries. The total reserve China has is way higher than any other country in the world.

2. Is there any interesting trend comparing the interest of government and private corporation?

Private investment in energy stays constant. This may suggest that, in the context of China, private corporations are less interested in finding profits from investing in energy.

3. Has there been a trend in the reduction of energy consumption at all?

NO. The energy consumption stays high and slowly increasing.

The second rows shows the trend line of a single country. This is an illustration to readers that the dashboards created allow filtering from the drop-down list at the right side, or "keep only" and "exclude" options shown in the tooltip, when readers mouse-over or click on a trend line.

The specific country selected in this case study is Mexico.

Answering the questions:

1. Does the government still have any more resource to save the environment?

YES. The general financial condition of Mexico looks really healthy with increasing GDP growth, and total reserves.

2. Is there any interesting trend comparing the interest of government and private corporation?

Private investment in energy has been increasing over the years. This may suggest a conflicting interest against the government, if there has been plans for reducing energy consumption to save the environment.

3. Has there been a trend in the reduction of energy consumption at all?

NO. The energy consumption stays high and increasing. However, a drop in CO2 emission and energy usage can be observed. This may suggest a successful effort in saving the environment.



The main focus of my data analysis is on discovering possible connections between the government financial state and the causes of deteriorating environment.


| What are the causes of Environmental Degradation? What are the solutions?

-After reading about the causes of environmental decadence, we can say that if the human race has to survive on the face of this earth, it is important that stringent measures be taken up to arrest further deterioration of the environment. One will have to work towards conserving air, water and soil and try to restore balance in the ecosystem, which has been destroyed or is on the verge of destruction. In other words, one will have to work towards restoring natural habitats and make sure no further harm is done to the environment.

As suggested by the website, saving environment requires restoring the natural habitat. However, the debate between the improvement on economy and environment will never end in the near future. The government financial status will determine the national budget, which varies across countries for its individual development stages.

At the very least, the 3 questions posted and answered suggest a positive connection:

A better government financial state is more likely to be involved in reducing the amount of negative contributions to the environment.

Comments

Comments from Prof. Kam

The selected topic seems very interesting. Can't wait to see the data visualisation prepared :)

Below are my two cents worth for your consideration:

  • The data visualisation prepared should allow the users to explore and discover interesting relationship among the variables you are going to include in them. However, under the session Theme on Interest, the term "the failing of governments and the deteriorating of environment" is used. It sound like you already found them guilty before hearing.
  • You need to select variables inline with the objectives of the investigation. For example, one of the objective is "Does the government still have any more resource to save the environment?", you need to look for variable(s) that are useful to represent "more resources".

--Tskam 08:09, 27 September 2013 (SGT)

Hello Prof! Thank you so much for your comments! Yes I agree with you. I am currently sourcing for more variable and factors for comparisons and I will be reforming my English sentence structure as well! I will get it done soon as interesting as I wanted it to be and hopefully don't let you down! :D

--Shih Fu Hua


Assignment 1 Assignment 2 Assignment 3